BPD Update Online, Fall 2003
African American Pioneers: Conclusion
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The above is only a glimpse of some pioneers of color. There are many, many more. The profession of social work is enriched by the creativity, tenacity and dedication of these pioneers. Their contributions offer insights into fund-raising strategies, agency development, race relations, community betterment and social work education. They were "networkers" before cell phones and fax machines. They promoted civil rights before Brown v Board of Education. They encouraged social work as a career to others. They are lighthouses of inspiration to us still.


Armfield, F. (1999) "Jewel Eugene Kinckle Jones and the Development of Early African American Social Work," The Sphinx, 84, 21-25.

Barrow. F. (2001) The Social Welfare Career and Contributions of Forrester Blanchard Washington, A Life Course Analysis. Unpublished dissertation.

Burwell, N. Y. (2001) "Lawrence A. Oxley: Defining State Social Welfare Among African Americans," in Iris Carlton La Ney (ed.) African American Leadership - An Empowerment Tradition in Social Welfare History, Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Carlton La Ney, I. (2001) African American Leadership - An Empowerment Tradition in Social Welfare History, Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Carlton La Ney (1994) Birdye Henrietta Haynes: "A Pioneer Settlement House Worker," Social Service Review. 68, 254-273.

Encyclopedia of Social Work (1995) Washington, DC: NASW

Gary, L and Gary, R. (1977) "Profile of Black Female Social Welfare Leaders during the 1920s" Black Caucus Journal, Spring, 9-13

Gary, L. and Gary, R. (1994) "The History of Social Work Education for Black People 1900-1930," Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 21, 67-81.

Hawkins, B and Daniels, M. (1985) "Inabel Burns Lindsay" Urban Research Review, 10, 1-3

Mercer, W. (1983) "The Gathering Storm: Teaching Testing and Black Teachers," Educational Leadership October.

"Phyllis Wheatley Department" The Woman's National Magazine, March, 1937. pp. 54-65.

Shaw, S. (1995) "Black Club Women and the Creation of the National Association of Colored Women," in Darlene Clark Hine, Wilma King and Linda Reed (ed) We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible - A Reader in Black Women's History. Carlson Publishing.

Smith, J. (1993) Emancipation - The Making of the Black Lawyer 1844-1944. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sung, S. (1999) "Milestones of Asian American Experiences and Social Work Practice" Multicultural Voices 6, 4-8.

Warren, G. (1993) "Edith Sampson" in Darlene Clark Hine (ed) Black Women in America – An Historical Encyclopedia. New York: Carlson Publishing.

Washington, F. B. (1930) "Headway in Social Work," Southern Workman. 59, 3-9.

White, J. (2001) Social Work with First Nations Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

The history of BPD is on the next page...

Spiral, Horizontal Line Spinning

BPD Update Online, Volume 25, No. 3, Fall 2003

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